The United East India Company or the United East Indian Companyalso known as the United East Indies Company Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie ; or Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie in modern spelling; VOCreferred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes known as the Dutch East Indies Companywas originally established as a chartered company inwhen the Dutch government granted it a year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade.
It is often considered to be the world's first truly transnational corporation [note 1]  and the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public.
The company was also considered by many to be the first major and the most successful corporation in history. By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent onlypeople from toand the fleet of the English later British East India Companythe VOC's nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2, ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century.
The VOC was formed to profit from the Malukan spice trade, and in it established a capital in the port city of Jayakartachanging the name to Batavia now Jakarta. Over the next two centuries the Company acquired additional ports as trading bases and safeguarded their interests by taking over surrounding territory. Due to structural changes, the Fourth Anglo-Dutch Warand French invasion of the Netherlands, the company was nationalised in and its possessions and debt were taken over by the government of the Dutch Batavian Republic.
Around the world and especially in English-speaking countries, the VOC is widely known as the "Dutch East India Company". The abbreviation " VOC " stands for " V ereenigde O ost-Indische C ompagnie" or " V erenigde O ostindische C ompagnie" in Dutchliterally meaning "United East-Indian Company", "United East-India Company", or "United East-Indies Company". The VOC monogram was possibly the first globally-recognized corporate logo. It appeared on various corporate items, such as cannon and coins.
The first letter of the hometown of the chamber conducting the operation was placed on top see figure for example of the Amsterdam chamber logo. The adaptability, elegance, flexibility, simplicity, symbolism, and symmetry were considered notable characteristics of the VOC's well-designed monogram-logo, those ensured its success at a time when the concept of the corporate identity was virtually unknown.
The flag of the company was orange, white, and blue see Dutch flagwith the company logo embroidered on it. Before the Dutch RevoltAntwerp had played an important role as a distribution centre in northern Europe. Afterhowever, the Portuguese used an international syndicate of the German Fuggers and Welsersand Spanish and Italian firms, that used Hamburg as the northern staple port to distribute their goods, thereby cutting Dutch merchants out of the trade.
At the same time, the Portuguese trade system was unable to increase supply to satisfy growing demand, in particular the demand for pepper. Demand for spices was relatively inelasticand therefore each lag in the supply of pepper caused a sharp rise in pepper prices. In the Portuguese crown was united in a personal union with the Spanish crown, with which the Dutch Republic was at war.
The Portuguese Empire therefore became an appropriate target for Dutch military incursions. These factors motivated Dutch merchants to enter the intercontinental spice trade themselves. Further, a number of Dutchmen like Jan Huyghen van Linschoten and Cornelis de Houtman obtained first hand knowledge of the "secret" Portuguese trade routes and practices, thereby providing opportunity.
The stage was thus set for the four-ship exploratory expedition by Frederick de Houtman in to Bantenthe main pepper port of West Java, where they clashed with both the Portuguese and indigenous Indonesians.
Houtman's expedition then sailed east along the north coast of Javalosing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura. Half the crew were lost before the expedition made it back to the Netherlands the following year, but with enough spices to make a considerable profit. Inan increasing number of fleets were sent out by competing merchant groups from around the Netherlands. Some fleets were lost, but most were successful, with some voyages producing high profits.
In Marcha fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the 'Spice Islands' of Maluku, the source of pepper, cutting out the Javanese middlemen. The ships returned to Europe in and and the expedition made a percent profit. Inthe Dutch joined forces with the Muslim Hituese on Ambon Island in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch were given the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.
Inthe Dutch expelled the Portuguese from their Solor fort, but a subsequent Portuguese attack led to a second change of hands; following this second reoccupation, the Dutch once again captured Solor, in East of Solor, on the island of Timor, Dutch advances were halted by an autonomous and powerful group of Portuguese Eurasians called the Topasses.
They remained in control of the Sandalwood trade and their resistance lasted throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, causing Portuguese Timor to remain under the Portuguese sphere of control. At the time, it was customary for a company to be set up only for the duration of a single voyage and to be liquidated upon the return of the fleet. Investment in these expeditions was a very high-risk venture, not only because of the usual dangers of piracy, disease and shipwreck, but also because the interplay of inelastic demand and relatively elastic supply  of spices could make prices tumble at just the wrong moment, thereby ruining prospects of profitability.
To manage such risk the forming of a cartel to control supply would seem logical. The English had been the first to adopt this approach, by bundling their resources into a monopoly enterprise, the English East India Company inthereby threatening their Dutch competitors with ruin. Inthe Dutch government followed suit, sponsoring the creation of a single "United East Indies Company" that was also granted monopoly over the Asian trade.
With a capital of 6, guilders the charter of the new company empowered it to build forts, maintain armies, and conclude treaties with Asian rulers. It provided for a venture that would continue for 21 years, with a financial accounting only at the end of each decade.
In Februarythe Company seized the Santa Catarinaa ton Portuguese merchant carrackoff the coast of Singapore. Also in the first permanent Dutch trading post in Indonesia was established in BantenWest Javaand in another was established at Jayakarta later "Batavia" and then "Jakarta".
The Governor General effectively became the main administrator of the VOC's activities in Asia, although the Heeren XVIIa body of 17 shareholders representing different chambers, continued to officially have overall control. VOC headquarters were located in Ambon during the tenures of the first three Governors General —but it was not a satisfactory location. Although it was at the centre of the spice production areas, it was far from the Asian trade routes and other VOC areas of activity ranging from Africa to India to Japan.
The Straits of Malacca were strategic but had become dangerous following the Portuguese conquest, and the first permanent VOC settlement in Banten was controlled by a powerful local ruler and subject to stiff competition from Chinese and English traders. Ina second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reached the islands of TernateTidoreAmbon and Banda.
In Banda, they encountered severe VOC hostility, sparking Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices. Diplomatic agreements in Europe in ushered in a period of co-operation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade.
InJan Pieterszoon Coen was appointed Governor-General of the VOC. He saw the possibility of the VOC becoming an Asian power, both political and economic. On 30 MayCoen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, stormed Jayakarta, driving out the Banten forces; and from the ashes established Batavia as the VOC headquarters. In the s almost the entire native population of the Banda Islands was driven away, starved to death, or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch plantations.
Coen hoped to settle large numbers of Dutch colonists in the East Indies, but implementation of this policy never materialised, mainly because very few Dutch were willing to emigrate to Asia. Another of Coen's ventures was more successful. A major problem in the European trade with Asia at the time was that the Europeans could offer few goods that Asian consumers wanted, except silver and gold. European traders therefore had to pay for spices with the precious metals, which were in short supply in Europe, except for Spain and Portugal.
The Dutch and English had to obtain it by creating a trade surplus with other European countries. Coen discovered the obvious solution for the problem: In the long run this obviated the need for exports of precious metals from Europe, though at first it required the formation of a large trading-capital fund in the Indies. The VOC reinvested a large share of its profits to this end in the period up to The VOC traded throughout Asia.
Ships coming into Batavia from the Netherlands carried supplies for VOC settlements in Asia. Silver and copper from Japan were used to trade with India and China for silk, cotton, porcelain, and textiles.
These products were either traded within Asia for the coveted spices or brought back to Europe. The VOC was also instrumental in introducing European ideas and technology to Asia. The Company supported Christian missionaries and traded modern technology with China and Japan.
A more peaceful VOC trade post on Dejimaan artificial island off the coast of Nagasakiwas for more than two hundred years the only place where Europeans were permitted to trade with Japan. The Chinese defeated the VOC again at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay in The Cambodians defeated the VOC in a war from —44 on the Mekong River.
Inthe VOC obtained the port of GalleCeylonfrom the Portuguese and broke the latter's monopoly of the cinnamon trade. InGerard Pietersz. Hulft laid siege to Colombowhich was captured with the help of King Rajasinghe II of Kandy. Bythe Portuguese had been expelled from the coastal regions, which were then occupied by the VOC, securing for it the monopoly over cinnamon. To prevent the Portuguese or the English from ever recapturing Sri Lanka, the VOC went on to conquer the entire Malabar Coast from the Portuguese, almost entirely driving them from the west coast of India.
When news of a peace agreement between Portugal and the Netherlands reached Asia inGoa was the only remaining Portuguese city on the west coast. InJan van Riebeeck established an outpost at the Cape of Good Hope the southwestern tip of Africa, now Cape TownSouth Africa to re-supply VOC ships on their journey to East Asia. This post later became a full-fledged colony, the Cape Colonywhen more Dutch and other Europeans started to settle there.
VOC trading posts were also established in PersiaBengalMalaccaSiamCanton [ verification needed ]Formosa now Taiwanas well as the Malabar and Coromandel coasts in India. Inhowever, Koxinga expelled the Dutch from Taiwan  see History of Taiwan. Inthe VOC signed "Painan Treaty" with several local lords in the Painan area that were revolting against the Aceh Sultanate.
The treaty resolved the VOC to build a trading post in the area and eventually monopolise the trade there, especially the gold trade. Many of the VOC employees inter-mixed with the indigenous peoples and expanded the population of Indos in pre-colonial history  . Aroundtwo events caused the growth of VOC trade to stall.
In the first place, the highly profitable trade with Japan started to decline. The loss of the outpost on Formosa to Koxinga in the Siege of Fort Zeelandia and related internal turmoil in China where the Ming dynasty was being replaced with the Qing dynasty brought an end to the silk trade after Though the VOC substituted Bengali for Chinese silk other forces affected the supply of Japanese silver and gold.
The shogunate enacted a number of measures to limit the export of these precious metals, in the process limiting VOC opportunities for trade, and severely worsening the terms of trade. Therefore, Japan ceased to function as the lynchpin of the intra-Asiatic trade of the VOC by Even more importantly, the Third Anglo-Dutch War temporarily interrupted VOC trade with Europe. This caused a spike in the price of pepper, which enticed the English East India Company EIC to aggressively enter this market in the years after Previously, one of the tenets of the VOC pricing policy was to slightly over-supply the pepper market, so as to depress prices below the level where interlopers were encouraged to enter the market instead of striving for short-term profit maximisation.
The wisdom of such a policy was illustrated when a fierce price war with the EIC ensued, as that company flooded the market with new supplies from India. In this struggle for market share, the VOC which had much larger financial resources could wait out the EIC. Indeed, bythe latter came close to bankruptcy; its share price plummeted from to ; and its president Josiah Child was temporarily forced from office. However, the writing was on the wall.
Other companies, like the French East India Company and the Danish East India Company also started to make inroads on the Dutch system. The VOC therefore closed the heretofore flourishing open pepper emporium of Bantam by a treaty of with the Sultan.
Also, on the Coromandel Coastit moved its chief stronghold from Pulicat to Negapatnamso as to secure a monopoly on the pepper trade at the detriment of the French and the Danes. The military outlays that the VOC needed to make to enhance its monopoly were not justified by the increased profits of this declining trade. Nevertheless, this lesson was slow to sink in and at first the VOC made the strategic decision to improve its military position on the Malabar Coast hoping thereby to curtail English influence in the area, and end the drain on its resources from the cost of the Malabar garrisons by using force to compel the Zamorin of Calicut to submit to Dutch domination.
Inthe Zamorin was made to sign a treaty with the VOC undertaking to trade exclusively with the VOC and expel other European traders. For a brief time, this appeared to improve the Company's prospects. However, inwith EIC encouragement, the Zamorin renounced the treaty. Though a Dutch army managed to suppress this insurrection temporarily, the Zamorin continued to trade with the English and the French, which led to an appreciable upsurge in English and French traffic.
The VOC decided in that it was no longer worth the trouble to try to dominate the Malabar pepper and spice trade. A strategic decision was taken to scale down the Dutch military presence and in effect yield the area to EIC influence.
The Battle of Colachel by Nair warriors of Travancore under Raja Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch. The Dutch commander Captain Eustachius De Lannoy was captured. Marthanda Varma agreed to spare the Dutch captain's life on condition that he joined his army and trained his soldiers on modern lines. This defeat in the Travancore-Dutch War is considered the earliest example of an organised Asian power overcoming European military technology and tactics; and it signalled the decline of Dutch power in India.
The attempt to continue as before as a low volume-high profit business enterprise with its core business in the spice trade had therefore failed. The Company had however already reluctantly followed the example of its European competitors in diversifying into other Asian commodities, like tea, coffee, cotton, textiles, and sugar.
These commodities provided a lower profit margin and therefore required a larger sales volume to generate the same amount of revenue. This structural change in the commodity composition of the VOC's trade started in the early s, after the temporary collapse of the EIC around offered an excellent opportunity to enter these markets. The actual cause for the change lies, however, in two structural features of this new era. In the first place, there was a revolutionary change in the tastes affecting European demand for Asian textiles, and coffee and tea, around the turn of the 18th century.
Secondly, a new era of an abundant supply of capital at low interest rates suddenly opened around this time. The second factor enabled the Company to easily finance its expansion in the new areas of commerce. The overall effect was to approximately double the size of the company.
The tonnage of the returning ships rose by percent in this period. However, the Company's revenues from the sale of goods landed in Europe rose by only 78 percent. This reflects the basic change in the VOC's circumstances that had occurred: This made for low profit margins.
This lack of information might have been counteracted as in earlier times in the VOC's history by the business acumen of the directors.
Unfortunately by this time these were almost exclusively recruited from the political regent class, which had long since lost its close relationship with merchant circles.
Low profit margins in themselves do not explain the deterioration of revenues. To a large extent the costs of the operation of the VOC had a "fixed" character military establishments; maintenance of the fleet and such. Profit levels might therefore have been maintained if the increase in the scale of trading operations that in fact took place, had resulted in economies of scale. However, though larger ships transported the growing volume of goods, labour productivity did not go up sufficiently to realise these.
In general the Company's overhead rose in step with the growth in trade volume; declining gross margins translated directly into a decline in profitability of the invested capital. The era of expansion was one of "profitless growth". The long-term average annual profit in the 'Expansion Age' — was 2. In the earlier period, profits averaged 18 percent of total revenues; in the latter period, 10 percent. The annual return of invested capital in the earlier period stood at approximately 6 percent; in the latter period, 3.
Nevertheless, in the eyes of investors the VOC did not do too badly. The share price hovered consistently around the mark from the mids excepting a hiccup around the Glorious Revolution inand they reached an all-time high of around in the s. VOC shares then yielded a return of 3. However, from there on the fortunes of the VOC started to decline. Five major problems, not all of equal weight, can be used to explain its decline in the next fifty years to Despite of all this, the VOC in remained an enormous operation.
Its capital in the Republic, consisting of ships and goods in inventory, totalled 28 million guilders; its capital in Asia, consisting of the liquid trading fund and goods en route to Europe, totalled 46 million guilders. Total capital, net of outstanding debt, stood at 62 million guilders. The prospects of the company at this time therefore need not have been hopeless, had one of the many plans to reform it been taken successfully in hand. However, then the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War intervened.
British attacks in Europe and Asia reduced the VOC fleet by half; removed valuable cargo from its control; and devastated its remaining power in Asia.
The direct losses of the VOC can be calculated at 43 million guilders. Loans to keep the company operating reduced its net assets to zero. From on, the market for sugar from Indonesia declined as the competition from cheap sugar from Brazil increased. European markets became saturated. Dozens of Chinese sugar traders went bankrupt which led to massive unemployment, which in turn led to gangs of unemployed coolies. The Dutch government in Batavia did not adequately respond to these problems.
Inrumours of deportation of the gangs from the Batavia area led to widespread rioting. The Dutch military searched houses of Chinese in Batavia for weapons. When a house accidentally burnt down, military and impoverished citizens started slaughtering and pillaging the Chinese community. After the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, the VOC was a financial wreck, and after vain attempts by the provincial States of Holland and Zeeland to reorganise it, was nationalised on 1 March  by the new Batavian Republic.
Its charter was renewed several times, but allowed to expire on 31 December The VOC is generally considered to be the world's first truly transnational corporation and it was also the first multinational enterprise to issue shares of stock to the public. Some historians such as Timothy Brook and Russell Shorto consider the VOC as the pioneering corporation in the first wave of the corporate globalization era. While the VOC mainly operated in what later became the Dutch East Indies modern Indonesiathe company also had important operations elsewhere.
It employed people from different continents and origins in the same functions and working environments. Although it was a Dutch company its employees included not only people from the Netherlands, but also many from Germany and from other countries as well. Besides the diverse north-west European workforce recruited by the VOC in the Dutch Republicthe VOC made extensive use of local Asian labour markets. As a result, the personnel of the various VOC offices in Asia consisted of European and Asian employees.
Asian or Eurasian workers might be employed as sailors, soldiers, writers, carpenters, smiths, or as simple unskilled workers.
The VOC had two types of shareholders: This was the usual set-up for Dutch joint-stock companies at the time. The innovation in the case of the VOC was, that the liability of not just the participantenbut also of the bewindhebbers was limited to the paid-in capital usually, bewindhebbers had unlimited liability.
The VOC therefore was a limited liability company. Also, the capital would be permanent during the lifetime of the company.
As a consequence, investors that wished to liquidate their interest in the interim could only do this by selling their share to others on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. The VOC consisted of six Chambers Kamers in port cities: AmsterdamDelftRotterdamEnkhuizenMiddelburg and Hoorn.
Delegates of these chambers convened as the Heeren XVII the Lords Seventeen. They were selected from the bewindhebber -class of shareholders. Of the Heeren XVIIeight delegates were from the Chamber of Amsterdam one short of a majority on its ownfour from the Chamber of Zeeland, and one from each of the smaller Chambers, while the seventeenth seat was alternatively from the Chamber of Middelburg-Zeeland or rotated among the five small Chambers.
Amsterdam had thereby the decisive voice. The Zeelanders in particular had misgivings about this arrangement at the beginning. The fear was not unfounded, because in practice it meant Amsterdam stipulated what happened. The raising of capital in Rotterdam did not go so smoothly. A considerable part originated from inhabitants of Dordrecht.
Although it did not raise as much capital as Amsterdam or Middelburg-Zeeland, Enkhuizen had the largest input in the share capital of the VOC. Under the first shareholders, there were many small entrepreneurs, who dared to take the risk. The minimum investment in the VOC was 3, guilders, which priced the Company's stock within the means of many merchants.
Among the early shareholders of the VOC, immigrants played an important role. VOC's total capitalisation was ten times that of its British rival. The Heeren XVII Stock trading courses in virginia Seventeen met alternately 6 years in Amsterdam and 2 years in Middelburg-Zeeland. They defined the VOC's general policy and divided the tasks among the Chambers.
The Chambers carried out all the necessary work, built their own ships and warehouses and traded the merchandise. The Heeren XVII sent the ships' masters off with extensive instructions on the route to be navigated, prevailing winds, currents, shoals and landmarks. The VOC also produced its own charts. In the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War the company established its headquarters in Batavia, Java now JakartaIndonesia. Other colonial outposts were also established in the East Indiessuch as on the Maluku Islandswhich include the Banda Islandswhere the VOC forcibly maintained a monopoly over nutmeg and mace.
Methods used to maintain the monopoly involved extortion and the violent suppression of the native population, including mass murder. Opperhoofd is a Dutch word pl. Opperhoofdenwhich literally means 'supreme chief'. In this VOC context, the word is a gubernatorial title, comparable to the English Chief factorfor the chief executive officer of a Dutch factory in the sense of trading post, as led by a factori. The Council of Justice in Batavia was the appellate court for all the other VOC Company posts in the VOC empire.
The seventeenth-century Dutch businessmen, especially the VOC investors, were possibly the history's first recorded investors to actually consider the corporate governance 's problems.
Inhe complained of the VOC's shoddy corporate governance. On 24 JanuaryLe Maire filed a petition against the VOC, marking the first recorded expression of shareholder activism. Since his large shareholdings were not accompanied by greater voting power, Le Maire was soon ousted by other governors in on charges of embezzlement, and was forced to sign an agreement not to compete with the VOC.
Having retained stock in the company following this incident, in Le Maire would become the author of what is celebrated as "first recorded expression of shareholder advocacy at a publicly traded company". Inthe history's first recorded shareholder revolt also happened among the VOC investors who complained that the company account books had been "smeared with bacon" so that they might be "eaten by dogs. With regard to the VOC's importance in global corporate history, Call option chain explained journalist Hugh Edwards writes, "The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie was the most powerful single commercial concern the world has ever known.
General MotorsBritish TobaccoFordThe Shell CompanyMitsubishi forex hedge strategy trading, Standard Oil — any of the other giant holdings of today are on the level of village bootmakers compared with the might and power and influence once wielded by the VOC. A History of the World's Most Liberal CityRussell Shorto summarizes the VOC's greatness: One could craft a defensible argument that no company in chutney makers lancashire has had such an impact on the world.
Its surviving archives—in Cape TownColombo, ChennaiJakartaand The Hague —have been measured by a consortium applying for a UNESCO grant to preserve them in kilometers. In innumerable ways the VOC both expanded the world and brought its far-flung regions together. It introduced Europe to Asia and Africa, and vice versa while its sister multinational, the West India Companyset New York City in motion and colonized Brazil and the Caribbean Islands. It pioneered globalization and invented what might be the first modern bureaucracy.
It advanced cartography and shipbuilding. It fostered disease, slavery, and exploitation on a scale never before imaged. The company was arguably the first megacorporation the world has ever seen, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate stealth forex results, coin money and establish colonies. Many economic and political historians consider the VOC as the most valuable, powerful and influential corporation in the world history.
The VOC existed for almost years from its founding inwhen the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a year monopoly over Dutch make money make money pitbull lyrics in Asia until its demise in During those two centuries between andthe VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4, ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.
The company was also considered by many to be the very first major and the greatest corporation in history. The VOC played a crucial role in the rise of corporate globalizationcorporate governancecorporate identitycorporate social responsibilitycorporate financemodern entrepreneurshipand financial capitalism. These financially revolutionary innovations allowed a single company like the VOC to mobilize financial resources from a large gestionnaire de fonds forex of investors and create ventures at a scale that had previously only been possible for monarchs.
Considered by many experts to be the world's first truly modern multinational corporation the VOC was also the first permanently organized limited-liability joint-stock companywith a permanent capital base.
The VOC is often considered as the precursor of modern corporations, if not the first truly modern corporation. With its pioneering features such as corporate identity first globally-recognized corporate logoentrepreneurial spirit, legal personhoodtransnational multinational operational structure, high stable profitability, permanent capital fixed capital stock  freely transferable shares and tradable securitiesseparation of ownership and managementand limited liability for both shareholders and managers, the VOC is generally considered a major institutional breakthrough  and the model for the large-scale business enterprises that now dominate the global economy.
The VOC was the driving force behind the rise of Amsterdam as the first modern model of global international financial centres [note 8] that now dominate the global financial system. During the 17th century and most of the 18th century, Amsterdam had been the most influential and powerful financial centre of the world. It was in the make money earthbound Dutch Republic that the global securities market began to take on its modern form.
And it was in Amsterdam that the important institutional innovations such as publicly traded companies, transnational corporations, capital markets including bond markets and stock marketscentral banking system, investment banking system, and investment funds mutual funds were systematically operated for the first time in history. In the VOC established an exchange in Amsterdam where VOC stock and bonds could be traded in a secondary market.
The VOC undertook the world's cheapest option trades recorded IPO in the same year. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange Amsterdamsche Beurs or Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch was also the world's first fully-fledged stock exchange.
While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they didn't develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market: The Dutch East India Company VOC became the first company to offer shares of stock. The establishment of Amsterdam What is intraday trading in stock market Exchange by the VOC, has long been recognized as the origin of modern stock exchanges that specialize in creating and sustaining secondary markets in the securities issued by corporations.
Dutch investors were the first to trade their shares at a regular stock exchange. The cambodia stock market of buying and selling these shares of stock in the VOC became the basis of the first official stock market in history. The Dutch pioneered stock futuresstock optionsshort sellingbear raidsdebt-equity swaps, and other speculative instruments.
The VOC was a major force behind the financial revolution [note 9]   and economic miracle    of the Dutch Republic in the 17th-century. During their Golden Agethe Dutch Republic or the Northern Netherlandsas the resource-poor and obscure cousins of the more urbanized Southern Netherlandsrose to become the world's leading economic and financial superpower.
In when the Dutch Prime Minister Jan Pieter Balkenende referred to the pioneering entrepreneurial spirit and work ethics of the Dutch people and Dutch Republic in their Golden Agehe coined the has anyone made money trading binary options "VOC mentality" VOC-mentaliteit in Dutch.
Balkenende later stressed that "it had not been his intention to refer to that at all". From the VOC had a trading post in Japan Hirado, Nagasakiwhich used local paper for its own administration. However, the paper was also traded to the VOC's other trading posts and even the Dutch Republic. Many impressions of the Dutch Golden Age artist Rembrandt 's prints were done on Japanese paper.
From about Rembrandt sought increasingly to introduce variation into his prints by using different sorts of paper, and printed most of his plates regularly on Japanese paper.
He also used the paper for his drawings. The Japanese paper types — which was actually imported from Japan by the VOC — attracted Rembrandt with its warm, yellowish colour. During the Dutch Golden Agethe Dutch — using their expertise in doing business, cartography, shipbuilding, seafaring and navigation — traveled to the far corners of the world, leaving their language embedded in the names of many places.
Dutch exploratory voyages revealed largely unknown landmasses to the civilized world and put their names on the world map. The Dutch came to dominate the map making and map printing industry by virtue of their own travels, trade ventures, and widespread commercial networks. Instead of using the information themselves secretly, they published it, so the maps multiplied freely. For almost years, the Dutch dominated world trade.
Rangaku literally 'Dutch Learning', and by extension 'Western Learning' is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejimawhich allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, —, because of the Tokugawa shogunate 's policy of national isolation sakoku.
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Considered by many political and economic historians as an autonomous quasi-state within another state, [note 14] the VOC, for almost years of its existence, was a key non-state player in Asia-related trade and politics. More than just a pure multinational trading company, the VOC — although privately financed — was the international arm of the Dutch Republic government.
The company was much an unofficial representative of the States General of the United Provinces in foreign relations of the Dutch Republic with many states, especially Dutch-Asian relations. The VOC had seminal influences on the history of some countries and territories such as New York New Netherland Indonesia global futures brokerage, AustraliaNew ZealandSouth AfricaTaiwan and Japan.
The Dutch East India Company VOC was also a major force behind the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery ca. The VOC-funded exploratory voyages such as those led by Willem Janszoon DuyfkenHenry Hudson Halve Maen and Abel Tasman revealed largely unknown landmasses to the civilized world. Also, in the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography [note 15] ca. He was turned back by the ice of the Arctic in his second attempt, so he sailed west to seek a north-west passage rather than return home.
He ended up exploring the waters off the east coast of North America aboard the vlieboot Halve Maen. His first landfall was at Newfoundland and exemple option de vente put second at Cape Cod. Hudson believed that the passage to the Pacific Ocean was between the St. Lawrence River and Chesapeake Bayso he sailed south to the Bay then turned northward, traveling close along the shore. He first discovered Delaware Bay and began to sail upriver looking for the passage.
This effort was foiled by sandy shoals, and the Halve Maen continued north. After passing Sandy HookHudson and his crew entered the narrows into the Upper New York Bay. Unbeknownst to Hudson, the narrows had already been discovered in by explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano ; today, the bridge spanning them is named after him. He found the water too shallow to proceed several days later, at the site of present-day Troy, New York. Upon returning to the Netherlands, Hudson reported that he had found a fertile land and an amicable people willing to engage his crew in small-scale bartering of furs, trinkets, clothes, and small manufactured goods.
In —12, the Admiralty of Amsterdam sent two covert expeditions to find a passage to China with the yachts Craen and Voscaptained by Jan Cornelisz Mey and Symon Willemsz Cat, respectively. In four voyages made between andthe area between present-day Maryland and Massachusetts was explored, surveyed, and charted by Adriaen BlockHendrick Christiaensenand Cornelius Jacobsen Mey.
The results of these explorations, surveys, and charts made from through were consolidated in Block's map, which used the name New Netherland for the first time. In terms of world history of geography and exploration, the VOC can be credited with putting most of Australia's coast then Hollandia Nova and other names on the world map, between and In the 17th century, the VOC's navigators and explorers charted almost three-quarters of Australia's coastline, except its east coast.
The Dutch ship, Duyfkenled by Willem Janszoonmade the first documented European landing in Australia in Hendrik Brouwer 's discovery of Brouwer Route that sailing east from the Cape of Good Hope until land was sighted, and then sailing north along the west coast of Australia was a much quicker route than around the coast of the Indian Ocean made Dutch landfalls on the west coast inevitable.
The first such landfall was inwhen Dirk Hartog landed at Cape Inscription on what is now known as Dirk Hartog Islandoff the coast of Western Australia, and left behind an inscription on a pewter plate. In the Dutch captain Willem de Vlamingh landed on the island and discovered Hartog's plate. He replaced it with one of his own, which included a copy of Hartog's inscription, and took the original plate home to Amsterdamwhere it is still kept in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. The first known ship to have visited the area is the Leeuwin "Lioness"a Dutch vessel that charted some of the nearby coastline in The log of the Leeuwin has been money to learn directgov, so very little is known of the voyage.
However, the land discovered by the Leeuwin was recorded on a map by Hessel Gerritsz: Part of Thijssen's map shows the islands St Francis and St Peter, now known collectively with their respective groups as the Nuyts Archipelago.
Thijssen's observations were included as soon as by the VOC cartographer Hessel Gerritsz in a chart of the Indies and New Holland. This voyage defined most of the southern coast of Australia and discouraged the notion that " New Holland " as it was then known, was linked to Antarctica. InAbel Tasman sailed from Mauritius and on 24 November, sighted Tasmania.
He named Tasmania Anthoonij van Diemenslandt Anglicised as Van Diemen's Landafter Anthony van Diementhe VOC's Governor General, who had commissioned his voyage. Induring the same expedition, Tasman's crew discovered and charted New Zealand 's coastline.
They were the first Europeans known to reach New Zealand. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands' west coasts. Tasman called them Forex trading entry and exit points Landtafter the States General of the Netherlandsforex lessons uk that name appeared on his first maps of the country.
In Dutch cartographers changed the name to Nova Zeelandia in Latin, forex ea ichimoku Nieuw Zeelandafter the Dutch province of Zeeland. It was subsequently Anglicised as New Zealand by James Cook.
Various claims have been made that New Zealand was reached by other non- Polynesian voyagers before Tasman, but these are not widely accepted. In spite of the VOC's historical successes and contributions, the company has long been criticized for its quasi-absolute commercial monopolycolonialismexploitation including use of slave labourslave tradeuse of violence, environmental destruction including deforestationand overly bureaucratic in organizational structure.
For the full list of places explored, mapped, and named by people of the VOC, see List of place names of Dutch origin. The VOC's operations trading posts and colonies produced not only warehouses packed with spices, coffee, tea, textiles, porcelain and silk, but also shiploads of documents.
Pieter Cnoll and his wife Cornelia van Nijenrode by Jacob Coeman Panorama of Ayutthaya in the BushuisAmsterdam. Kraak porcelain in a museum in Malacca. The cover of the Hortus Malabaricus by Hendrik Adriaan van Reede tot Drakenstein. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the trading company. For the record label, see Dutch East India Trading. For other uses, see East India Company disambiguation.
East IndiaColonial Indiaand Greater India. East IndiesDutch East Indiesand Spanish East Indies. Colonial Indian companies and East Indiaman. First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia and Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia. Spice trade and Cape Route. History of the Dutch East India Company VOC. Evolution of the Dutch EmpireDutch East India Company in IndonesiaEconomic history of the Dutch Republicand Financial history of the Dutch Republic. List of Dutch East India Company trading posts and settlements.
Former settlements and colonies of the Dutch East India Company VOC. Former trading posts of the Dutch East India Company VOC. Populated places established by the Dutch East India Company VOC.
Dutch East India Company in Indonesia. VOC Opperhoofden in Japan. Military history of the Dutch East India Company and Battles involving the Dutch East India Company. Economic history of the Dutch RepublicFinancial history of the Dutch Republicand Dutch Financial Revolution. Economic history of the Netherlands —Dutch economic miracle ca. Art of the Dutch Golden Age and Dutch Golden Age painting. RangakuScience and technology in the Dutch RepublicCartography in the Dutch RepublicJan Jansz.
WeltevreeHendrick HamelJohan NieuhofCornelis de BruijnAndries BeeckmanIsaac Titsinghand Hansken. Foreign relations of the Dutch RepublicCorporate globalization economic globalizationWorld-systems theoryand History of capitalism. New NetherlandHistory of New Yorkand History of New York City. Dutch exploration and mapping of Australia New HollandNova HollandiaVan Diemen's Land Anthoonij van DiemenslandtNova ZeelandiaAustralasiaand Exploration of the Pacific.
History of AustraliaForex broker mit metatrader 4 of the Northern Territory AustraliaHistory of Western AustraliaHistory of South AustraliaHistory of TasmaniaHistory of New ZealandHistory of FijiHistory of Tongaand History of Oceania. Works about the Dutch East India Company VOC. History books about the Dutch Empire and Works about the Dutch East India Company.
Australian places with Dutch names. Former settlements and colonies of the Dutch East India Company VOCFormer trading posts of the Dutch East India Company VOCFormer properties of the Dutch East India Company VOCPopulated places established by the Dutch East India Company VOCand Buildings and structures associated with the Dutch East India Company VOC.
Historians of the Dutch East India Company VOC. Dutch East India Company coinage. Ships of the Dutch East India Company. Ship designs of the Dutch Republic. Shipbuilding industry in the Dutch Republic.
Akerendam Amsterdam R Arnhem Batavia R Braek Concordia Dromedaris "Dromedary camel" Duyfken "Little Dove" R Eendracht "Unity" Galias Grooten Broeck "Great Stream" Goede Hoop "Good Hope" Gulden Zeepaert "Golden Seahorse" Halve Maen "Half moon" R Haerlem   Hoogkarspel Heemskerck Hollandia Klein Amsterdam "Small Amsterdam" Landskroon Leeuwerik "Lark" Leyden Limmen Mauritius Meermin canadian dollar exchange rate indian rupees Mermaid " Naerden Nieuw Hoorn "New Hoorn" Oliphant "Elephant" Pera "Perak", Malay for "silver" Prins Willem "Prince William" R Reijger Ridderschap van Holland " Knighthood of Holland " Rooswijk Sardam Texel Utrecht Vergulde Draeck "Gilded Dragon" Vianen Vliegende Hollander " Flying Dutchman " Vliegende Swaan "Flying Swan" Walvisch "Whale" Wapen van Hoorn "Arms aro stock options Hoorn" Wezel "Weasel" Zeehaen "Sea Cock" Zeemeeuw "Seagull" Zeewijk Zuytdorp "South Village".
Dutch church at Batavia Engraving of Colomboc. Indonesia portal Taiwan portal South How much do actors get paid for voice overs portal Companies portal.
While traditional multinational corporations are national companies with foreign subsidiaries, transnational corporations spread out their operations in many countries sustaining high levels of local responsiveness.
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An example of a transnational corporation is the Royal Dutch Shell corporation whose headquarters may be in The HagueNetherlands but its registered office and main executive body is headquartered in LondonUnited Kingdom. While the VOC established its main administrative centeras the second headquarters, in Batavia Dutch East Indies—the company's main headquarters was in Amsterdam Dutch Republic.
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Also, the company had important operations elsewhere. Its shares, however, and the manner in which those shares were traded, did not truly allow public ownership by anyone who happened to be able to afford a share.
The arrival of VOC shares was therefore momentous, because as Fernand Braudel pointed out, it opened up the ownership of companies and the ideas they generated, beyond the ranks of the aristocracy and the very rich, so that everyone could finally participate in the speculative freedom of transactions. By sdwingforex review ownership of its company pie for a certain price and a tentative return, the Dutch had done something historic: Our own East India Companyfounded inscottrade stock quoter a coffee-house clique untilwhen it, too, began selling shares, not in individual voyages, but in John Company itself, by which time its Dutch rival was by far the biggest commercial enterprise the world had known.
These early joint-stock firms, however, possessed only temporary charters from the government, in some cases for one voyage only. One example was the Muscovy Companychartered in England in for trade with Russia; another, chartered the same year, was a company with the intriguing title Guinea Adventurers. The Dutch East India Company was the first joint-stock company to have a permanent charter.
Financial innovations such as maritime insurance, retirement pensions, annuities, futures and options, transnational securities listings, mutual funds and modern investment banking had their genesis in 17th and 18th century Amsterdam. These can be thought of as creating in a short period of time all the key components of a modern financial system.
The first was the Dutch Republic four centuries ago. In a short time it became the most advanced shipbuilding nation in the world and developed large naval, fishing, and merchant fleets.
The Netherlands introduced many financial innovations that made it a major economic force—and Amsterdam became the world center for international finance. Its manufacturing towns grew so quickly that by the middle of the century the Netherlands had supplanted France as the leading industrial nation of the world.
It was highly mechanized and used many labor-saving devices — wind-powered sawmills, powered feeders for saw, block and tackles, great cranes to move heavy timbers — all of which increased productivity.
The shipbuilding district of Zaandam, in Hollandwas one of the world's earliest known heavily- industrialized areas. Retrieved 19 March Creating Order in Economic and Social Life. Oxford University Press,ISBNp. The Blue Line Imperative: What Managing for Value Really Means. Jossey-Bass,ISBNp. Retrieved 20 December Secrets of the Dead. Retrieved 12 November The Age of European Discovery, — The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World. A History of the World's Most Liberal City. The Rise and Fall of the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie".
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Retrieved 20 April An Ambitious World Heritage Project UNESCO Memory of the World — reg. VOC Archives Appendix 2, p. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. The 'Committee for Affairs Relating to East India Trade and Possessions', instituted by the new Batavian Republic revolutionary government, resulting in the VOC being nationalised on 1 January The VOC charter, the legal foundation of the enterprise was revoked. Although the state of war in Europe permitted no drastic changes in course as far as shipping and trade to Asia were concerned it spelled the end of the company Balk,L.
The logo that lasted". Retrieved 22 Jan Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 2 April De VOC en de tweedeling van Timor in de zeventiende eeuwZutphen: In the short term the supply was, of course, also inelastic.
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Chinese settlers, Mestizo women, and the Dutch in VOC Batavia. The French sent naval expeditions from metropolitan France, which the VOC easily countered. The Dutch then made the defenses of the fortress impregnable, which they came to regret when the Dutch government returned it to the French by the Treaty of Ryswick in exchange for tariff concessions in Europe by the French.
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The First Known Shareholder Activist: Shareholder Rights at Commemorating Isaac Le Maire and the First Recorded Expression of Investor Advocacy The Hague: The Evolution of Shareholder Voting Rights: Separation of Ownership and Consumption. Yale Law Journal, Vol. The New York Times. Retrieved 10 Apr The Wreck on the Half-Moon Reef. A Series of Firsts: London Review of Books, Vol. Retrieved 25 Feb Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 11 Mar As Richard McGill Murphy notes: Rival European capitals launched their own stock exchanges.
The securitization of the world was under way. It's worth remembering the original Amsterdam Bourse because it established the template for the modern financial center, a physical place where finance professionals help companies access the capital they need to grow.
Even so, the complex infrastructure of modern finance is still clustered in a few major cities around the world. The Little Crash in '62in Business Adventures: Twelve Classic Tales from the World of Wall Street. The Rise of Financial Capitalism: International Capital Markets in the Age of Reason Studies in Monetary and Financial History.
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In "The Age of Uncertainty"John Kenneth Galbraithwrites, "The institution that most changes our lives we least understand or, more correctly, seek most elaborately to misunderstand. That is the modern corporation. Week by week, month by month, year by year, it exercises a greater influence on our livelihood and the way we live than unions, universities, politicians, the government. The World's First Multinational". A History of the Global Stock Market: From Ancient Rome to Silicon Valley.
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Security, Diplomacy and Commerce in 17th-Century Southeast Asia Singapore: NUS Press, https: Jan Compagnie in War and Peace, — A Short History of the Dutch East-India Company Heinemann Asia, Boxer, Charles R.
An Essay on the Cultural Artistic and Scientific Influence Exercised by the Hollanders in Japan from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries. The Dutch Seaborne Empire: Dutch Merchants and Mariners in Asia, — Collected Studies Series. Variorum,pp Brook, Timothy: Profile Books,pp Braam Houckgeest, Andre Everard VanAn authentic account of the embassy of the Dutch East-India Company, to the court of the emperor of China, in the years andLondon: The Importance of the Dutch opium trade in the Seventeenth Century", in Eidos.
University College Utrecht Academic Magazine. Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its world impact Cambridge U. Cultural Commerce and Dutch Commercial Culture: The Influence of European Material Culture on Japan, — Studies in Overseas History 5.
Research School CNWS, Leiden University,pp Chiu, Hsin-Hui: The Colonial 'Civilizing Process' in Dutch Formosa, — Tanap Monographs on the History of Asian-European Interaction. Brill Academic,pp Clulow, Adam: The Company and the Shogun: The Dutch Encounter with Tokugawa Japan Columbia Studies in International and Global History. Columbia University Press,pp De Lange, William. ISBN Dijk, Wil O.: Seventeenth-century Burma and the Dutch East India Company, — Singapore University Press,ISBN Femme GaastraThe Dutch East India Company: Femme GaastraParticuliere geldstromen binnen het VOC-bedrijf — Rijksmuseum Het Koninklijk Penningkabinet, Funnell, Warwick; Robertson, Jeffrey: Routledge,pp Furber, Holden, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient — Minneapolis, Gepken-Jager, Ella; van Solinge, Gerard; Timmermann, Levinus eds.
Kluwer Legal Publishers,pp Gelderblom, Oscar, and Joost Jonker. The finance of the Dutch East India trade and the rise of the Amsterdam capital market, — The Hague, Goetzmann, William N.
Oxford University Press,ISBN Goodman, Grant K.: Japan and the Dutch — Curzon Press,pp Heeres, J. The Part Borne by the Dutch in the Discovery of Australia — Published by the Royal Dutch Geographical Society in Commemoration of the XXVth Anniversary of Its Foundation, Heeres J. Abel Janszoon Tasman's Journal of His Discovery of Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand in Amsterdam, Henderson, J.: Sent Forth a Dove: The Discovery of Duyfken, pp Hoang, Anh Tuan: BRILL,ISBN Huigen, Siegfried; de Jong, Jan L.: The Dutch Trading Companies as Knowledge Networks Intersections.
BRILL,pp Hunt, John: Early Settlers at the Cape — Matador,pp Hyma, Albert: A History of the Dutch in the Far East. George Wahr Pub Co, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Irwin, Douglas A. The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry for the East India Trade". Journal of Political Economy. Oxford, Jonker, Joost; Sluyterman, Keetie: At Home on the World Markets: Dutch International Trading Companies from the 16th Century until the Present. McGill Queens University Press,pp Jonker, Joost; Gelderblom, Oscar; de Jong, Abe: The Formative Years of the Modern Corporation: The Dutch East India Company VOC, — The Dutch Come to Korea.
Royal Asiatic Society-Korea Branch, 1st edition,pp McHugh, Evan: An Epic Adventure New South Books. University of New South Wales Press,pp Moree, P. A Concise History of Dutch Mauritius, — Studies from the International Institute for Asian Studies. Routledge,pp Numata, Jiro: A Short History of the Study of Western Science in Early Modern Japan Scientific Publications of the Japan-Netherlands Institute.
Japan-Netherlands Institute,pp Parthesius, Robert: Dutch Ships in Tropical Waters: The Development of the Dutch East India Company VOC Shipping Network in Asia — Amsterdam Studies in the Dutch Golden Age. Amsterdam University Press,pp Peters, Nonja ed. The Dutch Down Under — University of Western Australia Press,pp Petram, Lodewijk: Columbia University Press,pp Prakash, Om: The Dutch East India Company and the Economy of Bengal, — Princeton University Press,pp Prakash, Om: Precious Metals and Commerce: The Dutch East India Company in the Indian Ocean Trade Variorum Collected Studies Series.
Routledge,ISBN Ruangsilp, Bhawan Dutch East India Company Merchants at the Court of Ayutthaya: Dutch Perceptions of the Thai Kingdom, Ca. Sailing for the East: History and Catalogue of Manuscript Charts on Vellum of the Dutch East India Company VOC— BRILL,ISBN Shimada, Ryuto: The Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese Copper by the Dutch East India Company During the Eighteenth Century TANAP Monographs on the History of Asian-European Interaction.
BRILL,ISBN Steengaard, Niels. The Dutch East India Company as an Institutional Innovation Suzuki, Yasuko: The Dutch East India Company and Beyond. Trans Pacific Press,pp Taylor, Jean Gelman. The Social World of Batavia: Europeans and Eurasians in Colonial Indonesia University of Wisconsin Press, 2nd ed. History of South Africa under the Administration of the Dutch East India Company, to Nabu Press,pp Van Lohuizen, Jan: The Dutch East India Company and Mysore, — Springer,ISBN Vink, Markus: Encounters on the Opposite Coast: The Dutch East India Company and the Nayaka State of Madurai in the Seventeenth Century European Expansion and Indigenous Response.
BRILL,ISBN Vries, Jan de, and A. The First Modern Economy. Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, —Cambridge University Press,ISBN Ward, Kerry: Forced Migration in the Dutch East India Company Studies in Comparative World History. Cambridge University Press,ISBN Wiarda, Howard J.: Growing Up Dutch in New Worlds and the Old. The Netherlands and Its Settlements in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Lexington Books,pp Wills, John E. Pepper, Guns, and Parleys: The Dutch East India Company and China, — Harvard University Press, Octrooi van de VOC.
Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company — Ambon Banda Islands Cape Colony Celebes Ceylon Coromandel Formosa Malacca Moluccas Northeast coast of Java. Bantam Malabar West coast of Sumatra. Bantam Banjarmasin Batavia Cheribon Palembang Preanger Pontianak. Myanmar Canton Dejima Mauritius Siam Timor Tonkin. Colonies and trading posts of the Dutch West India Company — Arguin Gold Coast Loango-Angola Senegambia Slave Coast. Settlements of the Noordsche Compagnie — Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands — Bengal Coromandel Malacca Suratte.
Kingdom of the Netherlands —present. Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius. Economic history of the Netherlands. Amsterdam Stock Exchange Bank of Amsterdam Amsterdamsche Wisselbank Brabantsche Compagnie Compagnie van Verre Dutch East India Company Dutch West India Company New Netherland Company Noordsche Compagnie. De Nederlandsche Bank Stichting Max Havelaar. Pieter de la Court Joseph de la Vega Louis De Geer Gerard Adriaan Heineken Isaac Le Maire Johan Palmstruch Anton Philips Gerard Philips Nico Roozen Coenraad Johannes van Houten Frans van der Hoff A.
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